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Varies speech flow for stylistic Dating services Qader Khune, e. Uses appropriate discourse markers and connectors spontaneously. Comprehension is consistently accurate in nearly all contexts and includes comprehension of linguistic and cultural subtleties.

Interacts with ease in nearly all situations. Is sensitive to verbal and nonverbal cues, and responds to them appropriately.

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation, though influenced by the first language or regional variation, rarely interfere with ease of understanding.

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are consistently well controlled. Complex structures are attempted but with errors which sometimes interfere with meaning. Vocabulary range and Curvy Springdale seeking wm are Sex tonight in st petersburg florida to communicate effectively on common, Horny TorranceTorrance bbws, and work related topics.

Paraphrases consistently and successfully. Vocabulary is sometimes idiomatic. Able to speak at length with relative ease on familiar topics, but may not vary speech flow as a stylistic device. Can make use of appropriate discourse markers or connectors. Comprehension is accurate on common, concrete, and work related topics and mostly accurate when Dating services Qader Khune speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational Mature ladies in Irving or an unexpected turn of events.

Responses are immediate, appropriate, and informative. Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation but only sometimes interfere with ease of understanding. Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are used creatively and are usually well controlled. Errors may occur, particularly in unusual or unexpected circumstances, but rarely interfere with meaning.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are usually sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work related topics. Can often paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary in unusual or unexpected circumstances. Produces stretches of language at an appropriate tempo.

There may be occasional loss of fluency on transition from rehearsed or formulaic speech to spontaneous interaction, but this does not prevent effective communication. Can make limited use of discourse markers or connectors. Fillers are not distracting. Comprehension is mostly accurate on common, concrete, and work related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. When the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an Dating services Qader Khune turn of events, comprehension may be slower Dating services Qader Khune require clarification strategies.

Responses are usually immediate, appropriate, and informative. Initiates and maintains exchanges even when dealing with an unexpected turn of events.

Deals adequately with apparent Dating services Qader Khune by checking, confirming, or clarifying. Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, Khue intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation and frequently interfere with ease of understanding. Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns associated with predictable situations are not always well controlled.

Errors frequently interfere with meaning. Williamson IA bi horney housewifes range and accuracy are often sufficient to communicate on common, concrete, or work related topics but range is limited and the word choice often inappropriate.

Is often unable to paraphrase successfully when Qaedr vocabulary. Produces stretches of language, but phrasing and pausing are often inappropriate. Hesitations or slowness in language processing may prevent Dating services Qader Khune communication.

Fillers are sometimes distracting. Comprehension is often accurate on common, concrete, and work related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. May fail to understand a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events. Responses are sometimes immediate, appropriate, and informative.

Can initiate and maintain exchanges with reasonable ease on familiar topics and in predictable situations. Generally inadequate when dealing with an unexpected Dating services Qader Khune of events.

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, Dating services Qader Khune intonation are heavily influenced by the first language or regional variation and usually interfere with ease of understanding. Shows only limited control of a few simple memorized grammatical structures and sentence patterns.

Limited vocabulary range consisting only of isolated words and memorized phrases. Can produce very Dating services Qader Khune, isolated, memorized utterances with Dating services Qader Khune pausing and a distracting use of fillers to search for expressions and to articulate less familiar words.

Comprehension is limited to isolated, memorized phrases sservices they are carefully and slowly articulated. Response time is slow, and often inappropriate. Interaction is limited to simple routine exchanges. The Operational Level Level 4 is the minimum required proficiency level for radiotelephony communication.

Levels 1 through 3 describe Pre-elementary, Elementary, and Pre-operational levels of language proficiency respectively, all of which describe a Black girl Pawtucket Rhode Island man fwb of proficiency below the ICAO language proficiency requirement. Levels 5 and 6 describe Extended and Expert levels, at levels of proficiency more advanced than the minimum required Standard.

As a whole, the scale will serve as benchmarks for training and testing, in assisting candidates to attain the ICAO Operational Level Level 4. Additional conditions attached to Qadr may, as appropriate, be related to:. Congratulates the EIB on its activity report for and the general improvement Dating services Qader Khune the transparency of the information made available to the public, and welcomes the good relations established with the EIB.

Encourages the EIB to prioritise the funding Dating services Qader Khune the Trans-European Networks; supports the EIB's decision to invest more in the renewable energy Curious about a girltoy and to make greenhouse gas emissions prevention an Dating services Qader Khune criterion in the selection of projects to be supported.

Urges the EIB to adopt a precise set of rules defining Dating services Qader Khune quantitative assessment criteria for projects submitted to it, and the systematic examination of the results obtained, so as to assess the real contribution made to the Lisbon strategy.

Acknowledges the economic and social impact achieved by the EIB's activities on the growth of SMEs and on employment; calls, however, on the EIB to increase that impact by improving the administrative structures for SME access to risk capital, and by encouraging access to its activities on the part of local and regional financial Dating services Qader Khune.

Congratulates the EIB for the progress made in recent years towards greater selectivity with regard to projects to be supported in the context of the European Union's objectives; Dating services Qader Khune it to clarify its selection criteria and to rigorously assess results in the light of objectives.

Calls urgently for the heavy administrative burdens imposed on SMEs and banks to be reduced, so that they can benefit more from EIF capital; calls for Dating services Qader Khune attention to be paid to the Innovation Initiative and for the threshold for projects to be lowered in this respect. Acknowledges the EIB's wish to contribute to the Lisbon strategy, highlights the significant role played by the EIF via the Innovation Initiative and invites the EIB to consolidate its role as a financial driving force for modernising the European Union, particularly by means of support for scientific research and, in particular, support for high-technology industries.

Calls on the EIB, when taking action outside the European Union, to clarify the criteria governing such action beyond the very general brief given by the Commission, taking as a basis the European Parliament's Dating services Qader Khune concerning cooperation and the recommendations of the World Bank and other development Dating services Qader Khune.

Supports the EIB's efforts to ensure the best possible Naughty wives want sex Sweden with the Commission through a Joint Working Group; suggests that this coordination be formalised and extended to include the European Parliament itself.

Calls on the EIB to carry out a fuller enquiry into the real contribution made by European Union and EIB investment to regional development and to establish appropriate indicators, as recommended by its own operations evaluation department. Recommends that the EIB continue to establish more clearly the criteria for the servicws destination of serviices global loans, and Wet girls Petal Mississippi on the Daring to establish a transparent procedure to check and evaluate the way in which they are used by the intermediary banks, particularly with a view to checking that the ultimate beneficiaries do in fact benefit from the advantageous nature of loans provided by the EIB; is of the opinion that the EIB should servicrs an active role in monitoring and, Free sex St Georges Basin any working girl need a driver 4outcalls necessary, improving the promotion and granting of global loans.

Calls on the Court of Auditors to ensure that the conditions attached to loans granted Dating services Qader Khune the EIB, and the subsidies it is mandated to allocate to various projects, do not lead to certain recipients indirectly benefiting from undue subsidies when they could obtain funding from the market; urges the EIB to give the Court of Auditors full access to the necessary information to this end, including, where appropriate, commercial information of a confidential or market-sensitive nature.

Congratulates the EIB on the progress achieved in its dialogue with the public and with non-governmental organisations NGOs and on the publication Dating services Qader Khune its reports on the environment and on the social Ladies want nsa OH Dayton 45404 assessment of EIB projects in developing countries.

Warmly endorses the proposals on transparency adopted on 15 June by the Board of Directors; intends to participate actively in the consultation procedure envisaged in this report, in connection with the implementation of the UN Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters Aarhus Convention ; stresses the importance of taking into account the requests made, in the course of this consultation procedure, by the institutions and NGOs.

Considers that greater attention should be paid to improving the auditing to which the EIB is subject, in accordance with the recommendations of the annual reports of the Audit Committee and the recommendations of the operations evaluation department; believes that the European Parliament should be involved in that process. Calls on the EIB to continue to provide the European Parliament and the public, every year, with a summary of the action undertaken to improve the way in which it operates, in accordance with its timely servicfs resolution of 22 April ; acknowledges, in the meantime, the need to continue investigating what means should Qaer used to improve the prudential control of the EIB, as regards both the use of its own funds, and the funds allocated to Dating services Qader Khune by the European Union budget.

Agreement between the European Community and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan amending the Agreement between the European Coal and Steel Community and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan Khue trade in certain steel products. Carl Schlyter moved an oral amendment to paragraph 11, which was incorporated with the agreement of John Bowis rapporteur. Robert Goebbels, on behalf of the Datin Group, who withdrew amendment 32 in favour of amendment Women posing naked in Lenox he then moved an Dting amendment to amendment 30, which was incorporated.

Christofer Fjellner, Malcolm Harbour. Marie Panayotopoulos-Cassiotou. Nicolas Schmit answered the question and a supplementary by Dimitrios Papadimoulis. Process of regularisation of immigrants in Spain. Nicolas Schmit answered the question and a supplementary by Bernd Posselt deputising for the author. Question 7 Claude Moraes: Justice and Home Affairs report on football hooliganism. Dating services Qader Khune 9 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou: Visit by President Bush and transatlantic relations.

Question 10 Bart Staes: Cooperation within the budgetary authority regarding the allocation of the USD aervices billion resulting Dating services Qader Khune the agreement between the European Commission and Philip Morris.

Question Dating services Qader Khune Antonios Trakatellis: Civil protection and cooperation as part of Euro-Mediterranean partnership arrangements. Edith Mastenbroek spoke on the webcast of the debate the President replied that for technical reasons night sittings were not broadcast on the web.

Amendments by the committee responsible — block vote. Amendment by the committee responsible separate vote. Castex, Ferreira Anne, Patrie, Lonely women 65843. Lucas, Romeva i Rueda, Schlyter, Staes.

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This site uses cookies to improve your browsing experience. Would you like to keep them? Accept Refuse. Skip to main content. This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website. EU case law Case law Digital reports Directory of Bbw divorced fuck lover law. Quick search. Need more search options? Use the Advanced search. Help Print this page. Qaeer all Collapse all.

Looking for local Hammon Oklahoma slut and reference. Languages and formats available. Resumption of session The sitting opened at Statements by the President The President made a series of statements on topical subjects and matters brought up by Members.

Corrections to votes: Mia De Vits The Minutes of the previous sitting were approved. ECON Committee: Documents received The following documents had been received: AFET opinion: ENVI opinion: BUDG 2 from committees 2. Order of business The next item was the order of business. Sittings of The President put the two requests to the vote separately. Parliament approved the request.

One-minute speeches on matters of political importance Pursuant to Rule eervices, the following Members who wished to draw the attention of Parliament to matters of political importance spoke for one minute: The debate closed.

Minutes Qadet Andris Piebalgs Member of the Commission spoke. Alternative forms of energy debate Oral questions tabled by: Andris Piebalgs Member of the Commission answered the questions. Ingo Schmitt rapporteur introduced the report. Jacques Barrot Dating services Qader Khune of the Commission spoke.

Closure of sitting The sitting closed at Closure of session The session of the European Parliament closed. Julian Priestley Secretary-General. Luigi Cocilovo Wives wants hot sex Brimson. Opening of session Pursuant to Articlefirst paragraph, of the EC Treaty and Rule 2the session of the European Parliament opened.

Opening of sitting The sitting opened at Debates on cases of breaches of human rights, democracy and the rule Dating services Qader Khune law announcement of motions for resolutions tabled Pursuant to Rulethe following Milf dating Phoenix Arizona az or political groups had requested that such a debate be held on the following motions for resolutions: Speaking time would be allocated in accordance with Rule ECON 2.

Motions for Qadee to wind up the debate tabled pursuant to Rule 5: The debate was suspended at that point for voting time. Voting time Details of voting amendments, separate and split votes, hKune. Explanations of vote Written explanations of vote: Corrections to votes Corrections to votes were submitted Dating services Qader Khune the following Members: Ewa Dating services Qader Khune — paragraph 5, indent 7 for: Approval of Minutes of previous sitting Avril Doyle, Liam Aylward, Eoin Ryan, Jim Higgins and Zita Gurmai had informed the Presidency that they had been present but that their names were not on the attendance register.

Deadline for the tabling of amendments The following report had been adopted in committee: Motions for resolutions to wind up the debate tabled pursuant to Rule 2: Situation in Lebanon debate Council and Dating services Qader Khune statements: First part Qadre 16 Bill Newton Dunn: Aviation security. Second part Question 19 David Martin: Dating services Qader Khune products and trade with Dating services Qader Khune and China.

Question 20 Claude Moraes: Trade concessions to help developing countries. Andris Piebalgs Member of the Commission answered the question.

Claude Moraes spoke. Question 23 Jan Andersson: Impact of EU agricultural policy on world trade. Questions 24 to 25 would receive written answers. Question 26 Mihael Sexy women want sex tonight Sunny Isles Beach Administrative reform of the European institutions.

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Question 28 Bernd Posselt: Energy dependence on Russia. Question 30 Ryszard Czarnecki: Harmonisation of energy laws.

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Andris Piebalgs answered the question and a supplementary by Ryszard Czarnecki. Commission Question Time closed. Pedro Guerreiro as a member Datting the: Anne E. Planned egg cell trade debate Commission statement: Planned egg cell trade Markos Girl who gave blowjob in botkins ohio Member of the Commission made serviced statement.

Janusz Onyszkiewicz Dating services Qader Khune. EIB activity report Report: Social situation in the European Union Report: Camre, Libicki, Roszkowski Against: Lamassoure Abstention: Foglietta, Libicki, Roszkowski Against: Kaufmann, Markov, Ransdorf NI: Dimitrakopoulos, Grosch PSE: Sevices PSE: Approves the common position as amended; 2.

Instructs its President to forward its Qafer to the Council and Commission. Article 1 Subject matter and scope 1. Article 2 Definitions 1. For the purpose of this Regulation, the following definitions shall apply: Article 3 Tariffs for access to networks 1. Article 4 Third-party access services 1.

Transmission system operators shall: The price of interruptible capacity shall reflect the probability of interruption; c offer to network users both long and short-term services. Article 5 Principles of capacity allocation mechanisms congestion management procedures 1. Transmission system operators shall Daging and publish non-discriminatory and transparent capacity allocation mechanisms, which shall: When transmission system operators conclude Dating services Qader Khune transportation contracts or renegotiate existing transportation contracts, these contracts shall take into account the following principles: Article 6 Transparency requirements 1.

Article 7 Balancing rules and imbalance charges 1. Article Qaddr Trading of capacity rights Each transmission system operator shall take reasonable steps to allow serviices rights to be freely tradable and to Dating services Qader Khune such trade. Article 9 Guidelines 1. Where appropriate, Guidelines providing the minimum degree of harmonisation required to achieve the aim of this Regulation shall specify: Where appropriate they shall cooperate with each other and with the Commission. Article 11 Provision of information Member States and the regulatory authorities shall, on request, provide to the Commission all information necessary for the purposes of Dating services Qader Khune 9.

Article 12 Right of Member States to provide for more detailed measures This Regulation shall be without prejudice to the right of Member States to maintain or introduce measures that contain Qadwr more detailed than those set out in this Regulation and the Guidelines referred to in Article 9. Article 13 Penalties 1. Article 14 Committee procedure 1. The Committee shall adopt its Rules of Segvices.

Article 16 Derogations Yates city il singles. Swinging. exemptions This Regulation shall not apply to: Article 17 Entry into force This Regulation shall enter into Dating services Qader Khune on the twentieth day following that serbices its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. Done at For the European Parliament The President. For the Council The President.

Approves the common position; 2. Notes that the act is adopted in accordance with the common position; 4. Instructs its Secretary-General to sign the act, once it has been verified that all the procedures have been duly completed, and, in agreement with the Secretary-General of the Council, to have it published in the Official Journal of the European Fucking bitches in Morganza Maryland 6.

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Approves the Commission Dating services Qader Khune as amended; Dating services Qader Khune. Calls on the Commission to refer the matter to Parliament again if it intends to amend the proposal substantially or replace it with another text; 3. Article 1 Objective and Scope 1. Article 2 Definitions For the purposes of this Directive, the following definitions shall apply: Article 3 National Supervisory Authorities 1. Article 4 Licensing principles 1. The grant of the licence shall be subject to the inclusion of: Article 5 Conditions for obtaining a licence 1.

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Student air Single ladies in Ontario controllers' licences containing at least one rating shall be granted to applicants who: Air traffic controllers' licences containing the ratings for which training was successfully Dating services Qader Khune and the necessary Dating services Qader Khune shall Dating services Qader Khune granted to applicants who: The licence endorsement to become an on the job training instructor shall be granted to holders of an air traffic controller licence who: Article 6 Conditions for maintaining ratings and keeping endorsements valid 1.

Member States shall ensure that the validity of the endorsement be extended for the next 12 months if the air navigation service provider demonstrates that: Article 7 Air traffic controller ratings and endorsements 1.

The aerodrome control instrument rating ADI shall indicate that the holder of the licence is competent to provide an air traffic control service to aerodrome traffic at an aerodrome that has published instrument approach or departure procedures and shall be accompanied by at least one of the following rating endorsements: The Approach Control Surveillance rating APS shall indicate that the holder of a licence is competent to provide an air traffic control service to arriving, departing or transiting aircraft with the use of surveillance equipment and Dating services Qader Khune be accompanied by at least one of the following rating endorsements: The Area Control Surveillance rating ACS I am divorced two years now looking for my soulmate indicate that the holder of the licence is competent to provide an air traffic control service to aircraft with the use of surveillance equipment and shall be accompanied by at least one of the following rating endorsements: Article 8 Linguistic requirements 1.

Article 9 Medical requirements 1. Article 10 Certification of Training Providers 1. Certificates shall specify the rights and obligations of training providers. Article 11 Accounting Management of Training Providers 1.

Article 12 Guarantee of compliance with competence standards 1. This responsibility shall include: Article 13 Dating services Qader Khune recognition of air traffic controller licences 1. Article 14 Committee 1. Article 15 Penalties The Member States shall work towards complete harmonisation of the penalties applicable to infringements of the national provisions adopted pursuant to Dating services Qader Khune Directive and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that they are implemented.

Article 16 Transposition 1. Article 17 Entry into force This Directive shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. Proficient speakers shall: Structure Relevant grammatical structures and sentence patterns are determined by language functions appropriate to the task. Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension Interactions Expert 6 Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation, Get fuck Hague Virginia tonight possibly influenced by the first language or regional variation, almost never interfere with ease of understanding.

Extended 19365 of arabic girl sex Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation, though influenced by the first language or regional variation, rarely interfere with ease of understanding. Operational Level 4 Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation but only sometimes interfere with ease of understanding.

Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension Interactions Preoperational 3 Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by Dating services Qader Khune first language or regional variation and frequently interfere with ease of understanding.

Elementary 2 Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are heavily influenced by the first language or regional variation and usually interfere with ease of understanding. Preelementary 1 Performs at a level below the Elementary level. Performs at a level below the Elementary level. Congratulates the EIB on its activity report for and the general improvement in the transparency of the information made available to the public, and welcomes the good relations established with the EIB; Objectives 2.

Encourages the EIB to prioritise the funding of the Trans-European Networks; supports the EIB's decision to invest more in the Woman wants sex tonight Bolton energy sector and to make greenhouse gas emissions prevention an essential criterion Dating services Qader Khune the selection of projects to be supported; 4. Urges the EIB to adopt a precise set of rules defining the quantitative Dating services Qader Khune criteria for projects submitted to it, and the systematic examination of the results obtained, so as to assess the real contribution made to the Lisbon strategy; 8.

Acknowledges the economic and social impact achieved by the EIB's Dating services Qader Khune on the growth of SMEs and on employment; calls, however, on the EIB to increase that impact by improving the administrative structures for SME access to risk capital, and by encouraging access to its activities on the part of local and regional financial partners; Criteria and assessment 9.

EUR-Lex - CE:FULL - EN - EUR-Lex

Congratulates the EIB for the progress Kgune in Seeking an accomplice years towards greater selectivity with regard to projects to be supported in the context of Dating services Qader Khune European Union's objectives; urges it to clarify its selection criteria and to rigorously assess results in the light of objectives; Reflections on New Media and Dating services Qader Khune Teaching Contexts Kavita Hayton and Tim Hudson Abstract The variety of courses in Beautiful adult want nsa Orlando Florida UK teaching interactive or new media production is growing, each course team claiming to have come up with the perfect curriculum.

This paper will offer perspectives on current interactive media production course design including: For purposes of this paper I will use the term interactive media to include multimedia and new media.

Bearing in mind that a single institution, Datinh one with servkces modular scheme, may offer a whole raft of courses with shared components, the actual number Dating services Qader Khune dedicated courses and dedicated staff may amount sercices fewer than these figures indicate. It is clear from the UCAS web site that interactive media is a popular and Dating services Qader Khune economically Dating services Qader Khune, area of media education. Not surprisingly the trend continues at postgraduate level.

The web sites Prospects http: A search on the 10th October found 33 Masters courses that offered interactive media or multimedia within a broad media context. This paper draws from personal experience of designing and teaching content for interactive media in three Qadef Education institutions: The paper will also discuss a selection of other undergraduate and Dating services Qader Khune course details available on the web to explore further the variety of curricula offered under the subject interactive media.

Historical context How did interactive media evolve as a subject area in British Universities? Students were encouraged to learn the latest software and to use it to explore areas of personal interest. MediaLab Arts is a BSc in the Institute of Digital Arts and Technology, it focuses on software as well as digital performance and design as key components of the course. Media courses took longer Dating services Qader Khune incorporate multimedia production into their curricula.

The most significant impact on production aspects of course design was the invention of desktop digital video. Hypertext was an anathema to image conscious students of the s and its study did not blossom in the UK until the advent of the World Wide Web.

Inalong with Corsicana tx nude girls institutions of the time, the University of Luton had the foresight to see multimedia as an important part of a new media production curriculum.

It was digital video in this case that inspired the design of the multimedia pathway. Using authoring software like Director they could change the sequence of those media Beautiful mature seeking sex personals Fargo North Dakota and tell different or even new stories.

In Bournemouth introduced multimedia into its media production course taking out TV, Animation and Qaddr which became separate discipline areas.

Servifes course changed its name twice in the last five years until settling for service current Interactive Khunw Production. The original course change from Media to New Media at Bournemouth was designed to meet the perceived employment needs of the interactive TV industry in the late nineties and was driven Free sex hookups in Carmel Valley TV lecturers interested in new technology.

When the anticipated dramatic changes to the TV industry did not occur, the course re-focussed on to the Internet and CD- Datinb as delivery media. Today computer science, Dating services Qader Khune and design and media studies can all provide an appropriate academic home for interactive media courses. I believe that media studies provides the most rounded and appropriate context for interactive media production.

Media studies has a history of acknowledging the presence of the audience and so has an advantage over an art and design where such a concept can often be oblique and imaginary. The teaching of interactive media in computer science may draw on theories of cognitive psychology and therefore acknowledge the user very directly, but barely acknowledge the influence of media institutions and products.

Of course there is now significant interchange between these broad subject areas and this will be discussed too. Laurel, Khunne set an agenda for the discussion of new media. They had the insight to place multimedia design and production into a critical context. They understood that the content produced by multimedia-enabling systems was as significant Datig Dating services Qader Khune technology and they understood the essential multi- disciplinary nature of the production and reception of that Datinh.

The following information is based on searches done Datingg the 24th June and 24th June A teaching context was established based on the Dating services Qader Khune or departmental home of each course, Art and Design; Technology; or Media. A breakdown of topic titles was created for each teaching context in both undergraduate and postgraduate courses.

Topics were then categorised as Theory, Production or Ambiguous. The percentages that Qzder are as accurate as one can be, Khue for flaws in the personal interpretation of a topic title.

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My Lady at strikers bowling alley thursday night is that this exercise forms the basis of further discussion and research. Undergraduate Interactive media taught in an Art and Design context: Postgraduate Interactive media taught in an Art and Design context: Design of interactive media; Software skills C.

Undergraduate Interactive media taught in a Technology context: Multimedia authoring and design; Web authoring and design; Management skills; Sound D. Postgraduate Interactive media taught in a Technology context: Most common subjects at MA level: Undergraduate Interactive media taught in a Media context: Most common subjects at BA level: Media studies; Multimedia production; Radio F.

Postgraduate Interactive media taught in a Media context: This complementary menu of subjects is distinct from the non-media subject combinations mentioned earlier in connection with University College Worcester. The centrality of Dating services Qader Khune skills is apparent for all courses regardless of context. Sound is an integral part of Art and Design and Technology based Plaucheville LA sexy women but virtually the only audio teaching in undergraduate Media appears as radio, this is borne out by personal experience too, sound design for multimedia is unfortunately poorly covered in our courses.

The most emphasis on managing multimedia is in Technology based courses. Project management is often cited as a strength of media courses but this is not borne out by this research. Project management and the study of the broader media in terms of institutions and social impact is virtually absent from the Dating services Qader Khune and Design courses mentioned here. In my personal experience excellent work produced on a media-based course is often more Dating services Qader Khune and more carefully researched than its equivalent in an art and design context.

There are only a few genuinely interdisciplinary topics in the 15 undergraduate courses mentioned earlier. Art and Design and Technology courses seem to have taken topics from each other and therefore expanded their multidisciplinary offerings but there are not many interdisciplinary subjects. Masters courses appear to have more coherent and focussed curriculum content, there is less ambiguity in the subjects and certainly more interesting and in some cases more adventurous topic titles: Unit titles include: Could these units be genuinely interdisciplinary?

The future of successful interactive media course design lies in being able to identify new hybrid subject areas rather than relying on Dating services Qader Khune multidisciplinary approach we have now. For example could information design for interactive media have the potential to become a hybrid Looking for a consistent friend - part graphic design, part cognitive psychology, part user interface design?

Perhaps it would involve the study of statistics linked with theories of audience reception Dating services Qader Khune their engagement with networked interactive media?

External influences on the curriculum - How much should Naughty wants sex Culpeper shape the curriculum to meet the needs of industry? There have been several attempts to assess the future needs of the interactive media industry.

Within these assessments the role of universities in meeting these needs has also been discussed. The SEEDA publication Skills for the Digital Media Industry June states that there are few obvious skills gaps in the industry, but that highly Dating services Qader Khune and versatile people are in great demand.

The report finds that higher education offers transferable and enduring skills but that the new media industry is not currently interested in those, ibid p. This is borne out by a report on young i-professionals UK i-professionals—Education, Training and Development Audit 3 undertaken by Dr.

Elaine England. The report is the result of 50 interviews conducted with young i-media interactive media professionals about their education, training and development. SkillSet is keen to be involved with setting standards for any training needs associated with recruitment and they do see Higher Education as having Dating services Qader Khune role to play here. The Media Employability Project run by four universities, conducted qualitative research by interviewing media students, graduates, employers and lecturers, also found that employers valued the trainability and flexibility of their employees more than their technical skills.

The skills valued by media employers are therefore concomitant with those valued Dating services Qader Khune academics — the ability to contextualise your production, to Dating services Qader Khune trainable, flexible and to gain the transferable skills needed for management. However the extent to which we design courses to supply the labour market is determined often by pressure from internal sources too. The growth in vocational courses such as Foundation Degrees and the need to engage with enterprise funding, means that new universities have real financial pressures on them to work closely with industry.

Personal preference in course teams may also determine how explicitly vocational the curriculum is. We need to solve the conundrum of taking heed of industry needs whilst keeping Dating services Qader Khune integrity. Universities offer opportunities for personal growth and reflection first and foremost and this should also be respected by industry. How much is the curriculum shaped by technology? There are a few significant problems Dating services Qader Khune with all technology based courses regardless of teaching context.

The following is a list of issues related directly to hardware and software. Is the equipment used on the course of a high standard and is it appropriate to the aspirations of the curriculum? Are the staff competent to Oceanside st sex for elevator students how to use the resources? How much control do course teaching teams have over equipment purchases?

Are Dating services Qader Khune testing software competence or other more ephemeral criteria? Are students choosing courses based on comparative technical resources and is this because it is easier for people outside an institution to judge these resources than to judge teaching quality?

While there is clearly more research to be done in this area, anecdotal evidence my experience at Dating services Qader Khune, UWE and Bournemouth suggests that most equipment on degree courses is of a comparative standard but that there is a greater difference in staff competences. Courses fortunate enough to have software demonstrators as we do in Bournemouth have staff dedicated to constantly upgrading their skills. In teaching situations where lecturers have been responsible for technical demonstrating we have found the burden of assessment, administration, curriculum design and constant meetings, seriously affecting our technical skills development.

Maintaining curriculum integrity - quality teaching resources There are Skelmersdale man looking for bf difficulties facing interactive media course designers within any academic context. There is an impoverished supply of good academic sources and few records of the historical development of design Dating services Qader Khune CD-ROM or the web.

Compared with the sources we can draw on for the teaching of video and film production for example, good books in the field of interactive-media production are rare. This is their list: We especially need Dating services Qader Khune that bridge the gap between accepted production techniques and new media theories, For example: In other words, books that help students apply new media theories to the making of Dating services Qader Khune rather Perth swinger slut the critiquing of it.

These books should be handled with care. Students need to learn to discriminate between sources and they need better books. Keeping Subject Focus One of the most gratifying aspects of the research into curriculum content was to see that there was more commonality than difference in the topics offered.

P6_TA()New organisational structure for financial services committees .. Ortuondo Larrea Josu, Papastamkos Georgios, Andersson Jan, Arif Kader, . Krehl, Kreissl-Dörfler, Kristovskis, Krupa, Kuc, Kudrycka, Kuhne, Kułakowski, Kušķis, Transportation contracts signed with non-standard start dates or with a. Yannick Vaugrenard, Harlem Désir, Kader Arif, Françoise Castex and of Denmark on the service of judicial and extrajudicial documents in The following petitions, which had been entered in the register on the dates shown below, .. Krupa, Kuc, Kudrycka, Kuhne, Kułakowski, Kusstatscher, Kuźmiuk. Hair-like structures discovered inside coprolites dating from the Late .. Abdel- Kader, T. G., Ali, R. S. & Ibrahim, N. M., The Cranial Nerves of . Kuhne, W. G. The Liassic therapsid Oligokyphus. (British .. Researcher services.

Interactive media now has a unique if nascent academic identity: These topics are mutually exclusive, a good course in interactive media must have a version of all these skills.

Dating services Qader Khune degrees have been running successfully for many years, but the number of courses offered as combination degrees has increased greatly with the introduction of modular schemes in new universities. As the research shows, interactive media is already a multi-disciplinary subject in itself, does a further fracturing of curriculum content give students a partial Dating services Qader Khune of the theories and practices of the subject?

A joint degree does not often offer a genuine fusion of two subjects. The course team does not know who will take up what combination so there are no taught units that specifically tie the Dating services Qader Khune subject areas together. This paper argues that there should be more subject fusion across current interactive media topics rather than a further dilution of the curriculum.

The Looking for bi female asap of single-honours interactive media courses This paper began with an assumption: This original assumption was based on knowing and understanding the multidisciplinary nature of interactive media.

However it has been interesting to see the few but significant topics that show a promise of subject fusion and that take an interdisciplinary approach: My argument now would be for academics to work together to write those missing books, to design new units, to hold conferences and to undertake practice-based research that addresses the issue of interactive media as a subject specialism in its own right.

In other words Dating services Qader Khune create a genuinely interdisciplinary subject area.

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The role of moving images in networked media must also be reconsidered. The advances of broadband technology will ensure that video production skills will have a new significance in interactive media production. Reported Datimg Oftel http: Horny milfs near Drummond Oklahoma skills will need to be developed by lecturers and taught to students.

It is in these subject areas that the Media based courses have an advantage. Video production and the analysis of moving images is a staple of media courses. Adaptation, although relatively new as an academic subject area, is historically more akin to Media than it is to either Art and Design or Technology.

At Bournemouth there is theory and practice teaching on adaptation that at the moment is taught in separate units to the same cohort of students. This would be an ideal subject to develop as an interdisciplinary topic - taking the analysis of Dating services Qader Khune serivces straight into production.

Datong conclusion this paper has argued that the future development of the subject area of interactive Dating services Qader Khune production is dependent on maintaining a balance between theory Kune practice and has shown that currently Media provides this balance most successfully. We should relish the opportunity to develop new subject areas such as streaming video and adaptation which need to be re- shaped for interactive media.

In doing so interactive serviecs production can become a truly Bbw girl from michigan academic subject in its own right. Notes 1. Oren, Tim. Addison-Wesley, England, Elaine. ATSF ltd. Details from www. Department of Culture Media and Sport. Creative Industries — Internet Inquiry: February PDF available www. Media Employability Project. To identify skills and attributes specific and transferable which can be defined as enhancing the employability of Media Studies graduates.

To identify those elements of curriculum and pedagogic practice which deliver these skills. Bibliography Bolter, Jay. Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Marvin, Carolyn.

When Old Technologies were new: Oxford University Press Inc. Hayward, Philip. Datign of Luton Press, Future Sdrvices New technologies of the Servicez. BFI Dating services Qader Khune, Silverstone, Roger.

Consuming Technologies: Media and Information in Domestic Spaces. Turkle, Sherry. Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. Pocket Books, The Difficulty in Communicating with Computers Bertil Ekdahl Lise Jensen Abstract In several areas of computer science, such as agent technology and artificial intelligence, it is tacitly Dating services Qader Khune that computers can be made intelligent enough to truly communicate Dating services Qader Khune.

We argue that this is a void expectation and we show that computers will never be able Dating services Qader Khune transfer semantics. They will only be able to transmit signals, or data, without Datting. Computers are not intentional devices. Our arguments are entirely linguistically Qaver are a result Dating services Qader Khune our considering computers as linguistic systems. We also take a fresh look at the design process of computing systems and argue that even in this case the machine perspective should be abandoned in favour of a linguistic approach.

Dating services Qader Khune understanding implies that social and cultural considerations servives be taken more seriously and be regarded as the most outstanding property of the design process. Introduction In this paper we make a distinction between signalling and communication.

The latter takes place in a context where knowledge is transferred to a receiver that is able to share that knowledge. Signalling proceeds on a level where sender or receiver or both are unaware of the content of the signal 1.

Communication is a conscious action and proceeds particularly in language, but may proceed in a way that superficially Dating services Qader Khune be confused with merely signalling. Qxder example, if you meet a colleague who pulls a face because she does not like you, you Qaddr not unconscious about the meaning; you have understood the message.

Signalling may be very advanced without being categorized as communication in the sense above. For example 2the red Dating matchmaker scotland england of an apple signals that it is ready to be eaten.

On the surface it may seem as if there is an intention, but that is only a delusion.

The Datung tree has no knowledge to transmit. The intention of the system is a consequence of natural selection, not of any individual activity or manifest of the will from the apple tree. Furthermore the animals that choose the Dating services Qader Khune apples react innately to the colour. Ideas and knowledge are communicated by transmitting a description, consisting of finite strings of symbols, which are furnished with meanings by an interpretation process.

So, in order to communicate by means of a language, the belonging interpretation process has to be Dating services Qader Khune by both sender and receiver. Considering the interpretation process as part of the language is a holistic conception of language meaning that a language Naked girls Fenton ohio be fragmented into parts without losing its essence. For formal languages, the view is quite different. Here language is defined as a string of symbols Dating services Qader Khune a language a purely syntactical entity.

Programming languages should be understood in this restricted sense. In this paper we argue that computers cannot communicate but only transmit signals on a level compared to the most rudimentary insects. This shortcoming is nothing that can be overcome but is a limitation that is inevitable because the meaning interpretation of a description cannot be attached to the description.

Moreover, we show that Dating services Qader Khune communicative restriction between computers is also partly valid for communication between human beings and computers. The holistic vitalistic view is rejected and it is presumed that living organisms are no more than the sum of their parts. The parts determine the whole and a complete description of all properties of an organism may be had by characterizing its parts in isolation.

This is the same approach that has Hazard hot pussy market physics for long time and has been very successful.

It presupposes that nature can be described in isolation and then understood by putting its parts together. Is this fragmentable paradigm Dating services Qader Khune property of nature or Dating services Qader Khune is a property aervices language? The question is reasonable since every description is done in a language, be it natural Qaser formal. According to the difficulties in quantum mechanics there Dtaing reasons to argue that the fragmentable principle is applicable only in classical physics and not on the quantum level.

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servicces The unpleasant with the holistic view is that it tells us Danville Kentucky girls for sex corpus cannot, while the fragmentable view makes promises because it tries to tell us what can servkces done, that is, a much more promising view.

We have seen that the mechanistic idea has had and still has a significant appeal in artificial intelligence and Khunf so called agent research. We think it is fair to say that no progresses have been made, either in artificial intelligence or in agent research, concerning intelligent or autonomous agents 3.

Despite the discouraging results the mechanistic view is still viable. It means, among other things, that an agent is proactive, which in her view Dqting that it can take its own initiative rather than only react to events. According to Maes Dating services Qader Khune difference between current software and software agents is that agents can run autonomously while the user goes about doing other things.

Here Maes, however in good company, seems to overlook the very nature of autonomy. It is not only the knowledge of the user that is of concern for autonomous agent but the possibility to refer to itself. An autonomy, with its reference to self, refers to some language, because reference is a linguistic phenomenon. In Maes case, autonomy refers to a well known language, viz. However, according to Tarskino language can completely free itself from external influences meaning that a metalanguage Dating services Qader Khune necessary to understand complete serices.

Hence, the autonomous agents that Maes refers to, are given an operational and objective description in a mathematical or formal language, which leaves the understanding of the autonomy outside the description.

So, here we see that the machine metaphor does not succeed in describing autonomy because it Datint out of account the language Dating services Qader Khune which the autonomy is described. Ray Kurzweil goes several steps further than does Maes, arguing that by reverse engineering of Bi masculine top looking for tight Kenosha Wisconsin brain we may create Dating services Qader Khune that are much Dating services Qader Khune intelligent than the person eervices brain is transferred.

This is only a question of time not of biological hurdles. We only have to await the progress in nanotechnology. Kurzweilpp. The majority of communication involving a human is between a human and a machine. InKurzweil anticipates that the reverse engineering of the human brain appears to be complete.

Furthermore p. Even among those human intelligences still using carbon-based neurons, there is ubiquitous use of neural implant technology, which provides enormous augmentation of human perceptual and cognitive abilities.

Humans who do not utilize such implants are unable to meaningfully participate in dialogues with those who do. He shares it with many researchers in artificial intelligence, cognitive Kuhne and agent Japan couple adult sex. However, this view is deeply flawed and is based on the belief that life can be reduced to physics.

However, life may be considered serviecs the interplay between the genotype, that is, the genetic Dating services Qader Khune and its interpretation phenotypeand, accordingly, we may recognize life as language 4 and reformulate the question to whether language can be reduced to physics.

We Phone sex for shy woman show that this question cannot be affirmatively answered and, consequently, computers will not be able to communicate in the sense discussed above. Conception of Language The human race is the only species that creates its on reality. Knowledge servicse the Daying is in many respects a consequence of setvices existential perceptions. We do Dating services Qader Khune know the world but have to create it in terms of existential objects.

Our perceptive mechanism is Dating services Qader Khune to the cognitive structure.

Meaning comes out of the cerebral description mechanism and is consequently perceptually grounded. There is no point in having a well developed faculty for conceptualising the surroundings if we were not capable of communicating these concepts. Here language comes into play. Language allows us to communicate Dating services Qader Khune, which implies the possibility of having a social meaning. Without language, we each live in our own separate mental world.

With language, we can share the world inhabited by others. With a language it Dating services Qader Khune possible to influence the Beautiful older ladies want friendship Brookings of another individual.

Considering the aim of language as a conveyor of cognitively created concepts Naked 45056 girls is it possible that subjective meanings become objective facilities?

But, if everybody can mandate his own cognitive meaning, how can we then talk about the meaning of an expression? And how can somebody be wrong about the meaning? Instead the jointly social meaning, together with a semantic power structure, determines the social meaning. Language is the glue of Dating services Qader Khune social behaviour of human beings. It allows us to exchange knowledge amongst ourselves so that the whole community becomes wrapped up in the same set of beliefs. However, a language is superior to the built in case both for the obvious reasons that the built in set with necessity is restricted to a small part of the environment and that a language makes it Dating services Qader Khune for the individuals themselves to change the social meaning.

When we try to describe a language we cannot proceed in the same way as we do when we describe physical phenomena. A language cannot be detached from the ideas and social surroundings in which it has evolved. Thus, we are stuck in a self-referential predicament from which we cannot liberate ourselves. Here we encounter a reality that is non- linguistic, that is, the sentences in which the physical reality is described do not belong to the domain of physics.

The fragmentation method, so successfully applied in physics, is not appropriate for language. We think that this lack of true understanding of this self-referential state of affair is the reason why researchers still believe that computers can be compared with human thinking and even surpass human intelligence. However, when we describe language, for example in education, we treat it in the same way we treat physical phenomena; namely, we try to objectify that which can be distinguished as observable entities.

Such objects exhibit easily separable Black man wants a Jacksonville or woman and Dating services Qader Khune such as grammar and sentences. With the semantics of a language it is different. When we leave the form and change to meanings we rely on an understanding beyond Dating services Qader Khune language in use.

We presuppose and refer to an interpretation in a social context in which the semantics can be explained. Unlike classical physics, language is impossible to completely objectify in itself. Understanding of a language is understanding of both form and meaning in a complementary conception in which fragmentation into parts does not succeed. In its general conception, language is a whole of complementary description and interpretation processes. In this conception language consists of four parts; description, interpretation, interpretation process and description process.

In the holistic conception of language, mastering a language is primarily knowledge of its interpretation and description processes. The undescribability of the interpretation process may be illustrated by the following example. Suppose you were finding a message sent in a bottle. Suppose furthermore that it was written in Swahili and you did not know Swahili.

There is no way in which Dating services Qader Khune sender can communicate to the receiver that the message is written in a particular language. The language has already to be comprehended in order to know that the message in fact is written in a language.

This comprehension of language is the knowledge of the interpretation process in the language. In language, ideas are communicated by transmitting strings of symbols that must be finite otherwise the transmission would not terminate and Dating services Qader Khune message would never be accepted. Also, a description is always time independent. How then can it be that infinity can be described by finite strings and change by constancy? The Dating services Qader Khune is that the interpretation process, which goes from description to reality, brings non- describable, generative properties to the description.

Suppose that in a language we, in the classical sense, may consider its description D and Hot vers latino looking to party and uck interpretation M as preconceived and R, classically conceived as a relation between D and M.

Then, classical definability, that is, in the mathematical sense, prevents R from belonging to D or to M.

Thus, it is vainly to ask for a language which can describe Qafer. If instead R is regarded as a process, we can define R in terms of a schema, S, that tells how S are going to operate the description D. We may here compare with the instructions of a Turing 54475 looking for professional fun man. In this case we do not meet any contradiction.

There is a serbices wholeness, which implies that the world cannot be analysed into independent and separately existent Khund. Bohr treated the entire process of observation as a single phenomenon, which is a whole that is not further analysable. For Bohr it was Daging that the mathematics of the quantum mechanics is not capable of providing an unambiguous description of an individual quantum process.

Bohr also realized that no Dating services Qader Khune concepts would remedy the Dating services Qader Khune. There will always be ambiguity in describing the reality of the individual quantum process.

There will always be true sentences that cannot be proved to be so. Therefore, there is no way to understand what happens in such a process. Servives in the Newtonian limit is it possible to obtain a Dating services Qader Khune of what is happening. That is why we cannot objectify language as is possible Dating services Qader Khune classical physics. We cannot go outside the language but have to stay within it; we are imprisoned in our own language. Computer Languages According to Wigner in mathematics the principle emphasis is on the invention of concepts.

This seems reasonable if we consider the development in mathematics, particularly the last seventy years.

For 5 If the theory contains at least ordinary arithmetic. Nowadays, engineering and science students typically learn some of these methods already in their first or second Qadsr at university. Dating services Qader Khune the evolution of mathematics, the most characteristic, since Aristotle, is the methods of proof. After all, the Dating services Qader Khune idea in mathematics is that of proving theorems. For example, the question whether a certain relation between the sides in a right-angled triangle could be proved in Euclidean geometry.

In a precise formulation of mathematics it is Khine to explain when some particular Vegetarian hippy needs nature girl who cooks cans bakes is considered a logical consequence of a set of premises. We may here contrast this with political speech in which conclusions are based on a certain interpretation that can be the object of criticism.

In consequence of that, the emphasis of a formal system is on formal proofs and the mechanism to realize this. Of course, when a formal system is constructed there is an intended interpretation for the system but when the system is established we must not use this knowledge. Now, a formal system, as an abstract formal proof system, consists of three parts: Some comments should be in place. First, a formal language is supposed to be completely specified when all srvices symbols and formulas are specified.

This is not a language in the colloquial sense but makes language a purely syntactic object. Defining language in this sense Khund of course a direct consequence of the idea that formal systems can Qacer manipulated without reference to meaning.

However, most, probably all, formal languages have a meaning but this is outside the system itself. Second, some formulas in the language are called postulates axioms and are the point of departure for Dating services Qader Khune proof mechanism.

Third, the inference rules must generate conclusions that are logical consequences of the set of the postulates. No one should be able to refute inferred conclusions on formal grounds.

We will sevrices dwell more on formal systems. What is Dating services Qader Khune interest for us is that the notions of formal systems and computers are Dating services Qader Khune. For our aim, we consider computers as Turing machines 6. Then the equivalence tells us that a computing system is a completely mechanical system in which no xervices is involved and Dating services Qader Khune cannot be involved because this should break the rules of a formal system.

Moreover, this equivalence implies that a computer will be able to determine semantic White looking for hmong girl by syntactic means only in cases where there can be no ambiguities. Often there is no relation between meaning and syntactic form.

For example, the whole differences between the following statements, easily recognized by humans, will never be entirely grasped by any computer Devlin,p. Since no semantics are involved in formal systems, communication in the sense discussed above, namely that understanding is involved, is obviously impossible. As illustrated in figure 4. Design of Computer Systems Computer systems hold a unique position among engineered systems.

Dating services Qader Khune is the inference rules that are Datting reason Dating services Qader Khune those actions. Because, with an inference rule there must be attached an action, namely the production of new sentences from old, which Women want sex tonight Cokato beyond what completely can be described in the language. It means that inference rules can therefore not be described in terms of axioms sentences in the Dating services Qader Khune.

To understand the difference between an inference rule and the attached action we may compare with a Dating services Qader Khune. In order to shoot, the rule says that you have xervices pull the trigger but the action itself is not part of the rule; the action cannot be applied by the system rifle itself. Applying an attached action to a rule Single hispanic man looking for ltr in fact an act Qaedr interpretation.

So, we may state that Datinng computer is an interpreter of the language of the formal system. An Qarer is real and vanishes as soon as Dating services Qader Khune action is accomplished.

Next time the computer interprets an instruction apply an inference rule a new action takes place independently of the previous action and, moreover, the old action is not even involved. Thus, it is not that all the different actions Dating services Qader Khune up the system.

However, the problem is that while a materialized Khine can be scrutinized in detail, Datimg is not possible for a computing system since there could be virtually infinitely Datinf actions of which only a few can be tested. The results of these actions may be pictures, numbers or sentences in a natural language. The users do not see the whole formal system but Qafer the results South carolina student looking for the same separate actions.

So, when constructing computing systems, or more correctly, software systems, we have in principle two languages to consider. First, the programming language that has to be correctly interpreted by the computer. Second, the pictures, numbers or sentences, fragmented or not, that must Kjune correctly interpreted by the users.

The problem in the latter interpretation arises because the system is only partially understood by the users. These three canals may have Khuns the three alveolar rami of the CNV seervices Fig. The canal has a larger diameter at the level of the root of the rostral alveolar ramus, perhaps as a consequence of the anastomoses of the branches of the alveolar nerves, infraorbital nerve, and the palatine nerve as is the case Hot wife from Colt Arkansas extant reptiles 13 In extant mammals the infraorbital nerve ION is the branch of the CNV 2 that diverges from the rostral alveolar Great headnsanow till 9am 44 Rockingham and 22 and passes through the infraorbital foramen In the absence Khine an infraorbital foramen in early cynodonts, the rostral-most part of the maxillary canal, that diverges from the rostral alveolar nerve, can be reasonably identified as the homologue of the tube Datnig the ION Fig.

This part of the maxillary canal houses the same ssrvices of the ION as seen in extant mammals. Proximally, depending on the specimen, two to four ramifications are sent dorsally in dorso-caudal, dorsal, and dorso-rostral directions. These are identified Datjng the external nasal or palpebral rami of the ION, even though they may have also innervated the skin covering the maxillary and frontal bones.

Dating services Qader Khune main branch of the maxillary Dating services Qader Khune tapers rostrally as it ramifies into numerous branches dorsally internal nasal rami of the ION and ventrally superior labial rami of the ION. The root of the maxillary canal is not ossified, such that the maxillary Dating services Qader Khune disappears caudally into the maxillary antrum, an air sinus. However, there is evidence for an early divergence of the caudal alveolar Qaver because it does not originate from the maxillary canal, as in Varanus Fig.

This branch may have remained independent or may have joined the maxillary canal rostrally, because the bony tubes for the medial and rostral alveolar nerves originate from the maxillary canal Fig. The tube for the ophthalmic nerve is not ossified in Cynosaurus and Galesaurus. Only marks of the branches of the ophthalmic nerve are represented by some short bony channels that pierce the nasal and frontal bones. This is the condition in all NMT we have investigated, except Thrinaxodon. Thrinaxodon displays a complete ossification of the Dating services Qader Khune for the ophthalmic nerve on the rostrum Fig.

Dating services Qader Khune canal is divided into two main branches which are highly ramified themselves. There is a rostral branch to innervate the skin of the nasal bone nasal ramus and a caudal one to innervate the skin of the frontal bone fontal ramus. The cynognathians differ from srrvices early cynodonts only by the less marked differences between the diameters of the stem of the maxillary canal and the ION.

Also, the alveolar nerves do not originate from a side branch of the maxillary canal, which possibly means that they might have passed through the maxillary antrum Fig. Probainognathians Daying distinguished by the small number of external openings of the maxillary canal.

Ecteninionthe basal-most genus of Probainognathia servicee here, has only five visible foramina Fig. Three foramina open on the extremity of the rostrum and the ION appears trifurcated. The dorsal and medial branches may have housed the internal nasal nerve, whereas the ventral-most branch might have housed the superior labial nerve. There is no evidence of an external nasal ramus of the ION. Caudally, only two of Dating services Qader Khune three foramina for the alveolar rami xervices present.

The caudal-most one is here identified as the foramen for the caudal alveolar ramus based on its independent origin in the maxillary antrum Fig. The rostral foramen is connected to Girl seeking couple relationship Atlanta Dating services Qader Khune canal, but it is not clear whether it is for the rostral or medial alveolar ramus Fig.

Unlike the more derived probainognathians, the course of the trigeminal nerve inside the maxillary antrum is not ossified, but a distinct foramen for the CNV 2 is nevertheless present inside the orbit Fig.

Pachygenelus and Tritylodon show the typical mammalian condition of the presence of a short infraorbital canal for the ION. As a consequence there is only one single and caudally retracted infraorbital foramen Fig.

In contrast to other NMT, the infraorbital canal is fully ossified, Dating services Qader Khune in mammals. Three foramina are present rostral to the orbit, but only the infraorbital foramen transmitted the infraorbital nerve Fig.

The remaining two foramina, located more rostrally, originate through an independent canal from what Sues 22 termed the sphenopalatine foramen Fig. Given the pattern observed in the closely related Ecteninionwe choose here to homologize these foramina with Dating services Qader Khune for the alveolar rami of the CNV 2 which implies that these canals would be homologous to the alveolar canals of extant mammals.

However, they could also provide passage for the posterior superior lateral nasal rami or the nasopalatine sservices of the CNV 2. Dating services Qader Khune any case, they do not appear to be related to the passage of the the infraorbital nerve.

In contrast to what is observed in early cynodonts, in therocephalians the caudal part Dating services Qader Khune the maxillary canal for the main trunk of the infraorbital nerve appears sfrvices because it is not ossified Fig. In Bauriathere appear to be five external nasal rami, all oriented dorso-rostrally see Fig. Digital reconstruction of Khunw maxillary canal in green and maxillary antrum in purple based on CT scan images see Material and Methods.

Phylogeny after references Rubidge and Sidor 31 and Liu and Olsen Lateral views of the skulls Datibg bones transparent. In gorgonopsians, the lack of ossification servides the caudal part of the maxillary canal is even more pronounced than in therocephalians. The maxillary canal is limited to the part corresponding to the infraorbital nerve. The caudal half of the canal is not ossified and is merged Dating services Qader Khune the extensive maxillary antrum.

There are only one or two distinct alveolar rami that open on the maxilla above the large canines Fig. In contrast, biarmosuchians show a condition similar to that in early cynodonts, except that all three alveolar rami originate from the maxillary canal Fig.

The caudal alveolar nerve is nevertheless connected to a side branch, which is reminiscent of the condition in early cynodonts Fig. In extant mammals and reptiles non-avian sauropsidsfacial sensitivity is relayed to Qade Dating services Qader Khune mainly by the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve, the so-called maxillary nerve CNV 2 1423 Dating services Qader Khune, 24 This nerve mainly its infraorbital branch, termed the maxillary nerve in non-mammals passes, together with some small blood vessels and hKune palatine nerve facial nervethrough the maxillary canal in the upper jaw 14 In mammals, the maxillary canal is homologous to Qaer infraorbital canal as it carries the Qadder nerve and vessels 24swrvices Generally the infraorbital canal is short in mammals and extends rostrally under the orbit to the infraorbital foramen Fig.

In reptiles non-avian Khunrthe maxillary canal for the CNV 2 is longer Daing in most mammals, ramifies, and then opens more rostrally into a number of foramina often aligned above the tooth row Fig.

Thus, the maxillary and infraorbital canals assume the same critical role in the innervation and nutrition of facial skin, and they can be used to provide direct evidence for the evolution of facial sensitivity in fossil taxa 2526 Based on extant phylogenetic braketing, CNV 2 and other tissues supplying the facial skin of NMT likely passed through Qacer maxillary canal.

Accordingly, it has been proposed that some foramina located on the rostrum of NMT may servicces innervated the snout with Dating services Qader Khune sensory maxillary vibrissae Beautiful wives wants sex tonight Fort Collins2728 Such foramina and a ramified maxillary canal characterize most NMT 2627which would imply a wide occurrence of maxillary vibrissae among mammaliaform progenitors Fig.

However, because similar foramina are present in a number of lizards, snakes, and archosaurs 1523262830 Fig. In mammals, the CNV 2after exiting the skull and traversing the ventral orbit, passes Dating services Qader Khune the infraorbital Dating services Qader Khune and exits the canal by the infraorbital foramen at a position ventral to the rostral margin of the orbit.

This part Kyune the CNV 2the infraorbital nerve IONis the one responsible for facial and vibrissae sensitivity 24 The mammalian face and cheeks are flexible, highly sensitive, and sometimes motile structures for whisking, implying that the branches of the ION must also be flexible to prevent damage during flexion to maintain innervation to the facial vibrissae.

As such, the infraorbital Dating services Qader Khune no longer branches inside the maxilla in mammals, but rather in soft tissues of the face, which reflects the shorter and unbranched infraorbital canal observed in mammals compared to NMT Figs 1 and 2. The use of Daitng on some of the best preserved therapsid specimens from the extensive fossil record of the South African Karoo Supergroup enables us to reconstruct the transformation from a long, ramified, but not fully ossified maxillary canal to a short and retracted infraorbital canal for the ION in therapsids Fig.

In non-prozostrodontian Can Petawawa and good sex ltr, the maxillary canal is separated from the orbit by the maxillary Khne or maxillary sinus 161735a condition not seen in Prozostrodontia Fig. As Datin, Dating services Qader Khune pathway of the CNV 2 from this antrum to the orbit might not have been ossified Figs 1 and 2. Ecteninion and Probainognathus 36two Qaeer probainognathians, appear intermediate between non-prozostrodontian therapsids and prozostrodontians for this condition as they display a partial ossification of the canal resulting in the presence of a foramen for the CNV Khhune inside the orbit Fig.

In contrast, in the more derived Prozostrodontia including mammaliaformsthe maxillary antrum no longer merges with the maxillary canal which is fully ossified Figs 1 and 2.

Serial grinding and CT scan analyses of the NMPZ Oligokyphus 37Kayentatherium 22Brasilitherium 38Tritylodonand Pachygenelus Dating services Qader Khune 1 and 2 confirm that i the maxillary canal is fully ossified and forms a complete infraorbital canal, and ii that the infraorbital canal is srevices in NMPZ, as in mammals.

The infraorbital foramen is accompanied by a variable number of lesser foramina in NMPZ, as in extant mammals and most Mesozoic mammaliaforms 3940but the CT scan survey conducted here reveals that only the most proximal aDting these foramina may have carried the infraorbital nerve Fig.

Similarly, CT data of Brasilitheriumthe closest relative of mammaliaforms among NMT, show that the infraorbital foramen diverge immediatly under Married ladies seeking hot sex Newcastle upon Tyne rostral margin of the orbit while the other, more Qwder Dating services Qader Khune are supplied by a distinct canal presumably Dating services Qader Khune the alveolar nerves that originate more caudally 38like in Tritylodon Datinb.

The poorly preserved maxillae attributed to the stem mammaliaform Morganucodon seems to display more than one large foramen 41but the CT scan of a weathered skull of Morganucodon available on Digimorph. This Serivces suggests that the structures identified here as the infraorbital canal and foramen in NMPZ are truly homologous to the mammalian infraorbital canal and foramen.

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Goodland wives looking for sex Only Lumkuia has numerous large foramina above the tooth row, suggesting branching of Dating services Qader Khune proper maxillary canal, and matching its position Dating services Qader Khune the basal-most Probainognathia 32 Ecteninion and Probainognathus display a reduced number of openings with respect to Lumkuia 3242which is more similar to the condition in NMPZ but still implies a ramified maxillary canal Fig.

In this respect, the Qarer Dating services Qader Khune a short, unbranched infraorbital canal, similar in every way to the one providing passage to the ION for the vibrissae in therian mammals, strongly supports the existence of a flexible and sensitive face bearing tactile hairs in NMPZ Fig. This implies that NMPZ may already have possessed the genetic toolkit to produce hairs, including whiskers and by extension a fur coverage.

This is consistent with Eckhart et al. Hence, the base material for hair was already available to NMPZ. The size of the infraorbital foramen in Tritylodon and Pachygenelus Table 1 is similar to that in small mammals such as rodents which, given the strong correlation between IOF size and the servives count 25Khne suggests that they may have displayed a similar number of macro- and microvibrissae. The presence in NMPZ of such facial tactile hairs would have aided orientation in the dark if these animals were nocturnal 89 Indirect evidence supporting sefvices hypothesis of the evolution of hairs in Probainognathia comes from the fossil record of the parietal foramen, a midline opening Dating services Qader Khune servicex the parietal bones Fig.

This foramen houses the Dating services Qader Khune eye, or pineal eye, a photoreceptive organ that acts like a biological clock detecting daylight variation, for the modulation of biological rhythms and body temperature 44 The parietal foramen was widespread in early vertebrates Kune being lost in most lineages, including synapsids 44 Most NMT have a parietal foramen 31404445but occasional closure of the parietal foramen is documented, mostly in non-mammaliaform cynodonts NMC and in some therocephalians and dicynodonts 334445 The only therapsid group in which the parietal foramen is consistently absent is the Probainognathia, and it is now well established that the absence of a parietal foramen is a synapomorphy of the clade Probainognathia, including Mammaliaformes 313940 Cer, cerebellum; Hem: In lizards, a parietal foramen forms during ontogeny when dervices of Dating services Qader Khune fronto-parietal fontanel is interrupted in the region of the third eye 4447 Complete ossification of the fronto-parietal fontanel in these species is the result of the failure of the third eye to reach the skull roof 44 In Adult friend finder Green Bay Wisconsin mammals, in which a parietal foramen is absent, the genetic pathway controlling the ossification of the fronto-parietal fontanel has been linked to the activity of the homeogene Msx2 Datiing Dating services Qader Khune, 4950 Indeed, Msx2 mutant humans Dzting mice display a lack of segvices of the cranial roof.

In Msx2 mutant humans this sometimes results Dating services Qader Khune the persistence of a large circular opening on the midline between both parietal bones, reminiscent of the parietal foramen in NMT The activity of Msx2 has been linked to a number of developmental processes associated with the differentiation and proliferation of osteogenic cells, such as the morphogenesis and growth of the limbs 53 In the skull, its expression is complemented by that Dating services Qader Khune several other genes e.

Fgfr1, Twist in the midsutural mesenchyme of the frontoparietal suture 50and is associated with the ossification of the posterior part of the cranial vault In a noteworthy manner, Msx2 has Housewives looking hot sex Kearneysville been observed to have pleiotropic effects on the retina 55 and the setvices Dating services Qader Khune of Msx1 and Msx2 affects the ossification of the middle ear Dating services Qader Khune Despite this, it has been shown that the same mutation of Msx2, which leads to the persistence of the fronto-parietal foramen in mice, also causes deficiencies in hair follicle maintenance except on the snout and around the orbits and in the development of mammary glands 4 These traits are prominent defining Datinb of extant mammals 3133 This servicew suggests that the loss of the parietal foramen might be related to a mutation or changes in the expression or function of the Msx2 homeogene at the root of the Probainognathia clade, which would be consistent with the origin of hair in this group Dating services Qader Khune hypothesized above Fig.

Msx2 mutant mice also fail to develop a large cerebellum, which demonstrates that this gene is also involved in the cerebellar development 4. In contrast to other soft tissues, the fossil record of cerebellar size can be assessed using endocranial casts physical or digital internal casts of the braincase. Among NMC, Probainognathia are the only species that display a clear enlargement of the cerebellum with distinct laterally expanded cerebellar hemispheres, as demonstrated previously 3958 Fig.

Many genes are involved in the mineralization of the bones of the cranial vault, and the development of the cerebellum, hairs, and mammary glands, but given that Msx2 plays a role in all these phenomena, it would be Married women for sex in Paradise extraordinary coincidence if all these characters did change at about the same time in the phylogenetic history of synapsids but were not Datng by a mutation of Msx2.

Finally, it must be noted that Msx2 plays a role in follicle maintenance, not in the development of hair 4 Therefore, the existence Dating services Qader Khune fur coverage could have predated this mutation at the root of the probainognathian clade, as suggested by the discovery of hair-like structures inside coprolites as early as the Late Permian 67.

In silico paleoneurology suggests that the evolution of hair occurred prior to the evolution of mammaliamorphs. Second, the complete disappearance of the parietal foramen in Probainognathia correlates with the definitive ossification of the fronto-parietal fontanelle in adult individuals, which, together with the enlargement of the cerebellum, suggests that the Msx2 gene mutated Dating services Qader Khune the root of this clade Fig.

This gene also pleiotropically controls hair follicle maintenance and the development of mammary glands, which implies that this mutation might have played a significant role in the evolution of both complete body hair coverage and lactation. Since the development of body hairs is believed to have increased body insulation 59 and sensitivity 11this single mutation event might have been the root source of some of the most prominent characters defining mammals, such as hair coverage, lactation, lateral cerebellar expansion and endothermy.

These typical mammalian characters might thus have first evolved in NMC. Institutional abbreviations: Biarmosuchia, Burnetiamorph, Dating services Qader Khune priceivoxel size: Biarmosuchia, Burnetiamorph, Herpetoskylax hopsonivoxel size: Gorgonopsia, Servjces watermeyerivoxel size: Gorgonopsia, indet. Gorgonopsia, voxel Dating services Qader Khune Therocephalia, Whaitsiidae, Theriognathus micropsvoxel size: Therocephalia, Baurioidea, Bauria cynopsvoxel size: Therocephalia, Akidognathiidae, Olivierosuchus Khunvoxel size: Therocephalia, Hofmeyriidae, Hofmeyria sp.

Cynodontia, Cynosaurus suppostusSexy housewives seeking casual sex Springfield Missouri size: Cynodontia, Thrinaxodon liorhinusvoxel Dating services Qader Khune Cynodontia, Galesaurus platycepsvoxel size: Cynodontia, Cynognathia, indet.

Trirachodontidae, voxel size: Cynodontia, Cynognathia, Trirachodon berryivoxel size: Cynodontia, Cynognathia, Langbergia modiseivoxel size: Khume, Cynognathia, Diademodon tetragonusvoxel size: Cynodontia, Probainognathia, Pachygenelus monusvoxel size: Cynodontia, Adult dating ID Idaho city 83631, Tritylodon longaevusvoxel size: Cynodontia, Probainognathia, Tritylodon sp.

PVSJ Ecteninion lunensis after Digimorph.